Disarmament and International Security Intra-state Ethnic Conflict
Intra-state conflicts are common in Southeast Asia. Domestic violent conflicts are common in the newer ASEAN members of Myanmar (with the Karen group over issues of regional autonomy, land rights and discrimination), Laos and Cambodia (remnants of Khmer Rouge until 1997). In the older ASEAN members, Indonesia (secession of East Timor and Acheh), Thailand (over its Southern provinces) and the Philippines (with discrimination of the Muslims or Moros in the south) have faced domestic insurgency problems. By its very nature, the United Nations is traditionally limited in its ability to intervene in intra-state conflicts. The challenge that the UN faces with these sorts of conflicts is that the governments of these states are the only entities that can offer an invitation of aid. Often, the UN will be used as a means of supporting one side of the conflict, and this manipulation puts the impartiality of the UN at risk.
Maritime Policy The last decade has witnessed in Southeast Asia an upsurge of piracy. Piracy is shown to be related to other forms of international crime and with politically motivated insurgencies. The Straits of Malacca, situated between Indonesia and Malaysia, has long been considered to be the world’s most dangerous waters for pirate attacks. The waters off Tioman Island, located on the east coast of Malaysia, have recently erupted with piracy attacks, with four in 2008. Maritime piracy has major repurcussions, such as the potential for strategic international waterways to close, which would great affect the global economy, as well as breaches to domestic and international security. Furthermore, the cost of maritime piracy is said to be from $5-$16 billion USD yearly.
Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Reduction of the Drug Trade The illicit drug trade has developed into a global black market where billions of dollars are exchanged for drugs each year. This black market is largest in Southeast Asia, where narcotics have been grown and sold for centuries. The focus of the drug trade in Southeast Asia is known as the â€˜Golden Triangle,â€™ an area where the drugs are high and enforcement of the law is low. Through this lawlessness, the worldâ€™s narcotics supply is kept at all-time highs, affecting every nation in the world. During debate, delegates will examine old and new techniques to reducing the drug trade and enforcing the law.
Legal Aspects of Counter Terrorism
Terrorism is a very relevant issue in our world today, but many seem to forget that in preventing terrorism, a new set of problems arise. Legal issues are an aspect that is usually ignored- legality of extradition, conflict minerals, etc.; these all play a role in the forming terrorism policy, which can majorly affect security.
Economic and Financial Committee Maritime Trade Regulation Maritime trade is a crucial element for international trade between every country. Ships use a flag of convenience to reduce operating costs or avoid government regulations when moving from country to country. Flags of Convenience are important to Southeast Asia since three of the eleven nations operate an open shipping registry. When debating this topic, delegates will explore the economic impact of maritime trade regulation, specifically flags of convenience.
State Formation from an Economic Outlook Historically, the United Nations has played the role of arbitrator in cases of independence struggles. However, self-determination is not the only aspect that defines a state; the ability to be economically viable is just as important as the ability to self-rule. In Southeast Asia, the struggle for autonomy occurs more often than any other region in the world. Following the sluggish recovery from the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, more states are seeking independence. During debate, delegates in EcoFin will evaluate the practicality of new state formation from an economic outlook
and determine a course of action.
United Nations Development Programme Internally Displaced People Every day people accorss the world are forced to flee their normal place of residence because of a conflict, war, human rights violation, or even natural disaster. Unlike the term refugee, interally dispalced people do not cross national borders and are at large within their own country's borders. Southeast Asia, a region all to familar with natural disasters and armed conflicts faces the problem of reintegrating interanlly dispalced people. For example, the continuous fighting among different ethnic groups and inter-communal violence in Indonesia and led to the uprooting of over 200,000 Indonesians. The story is no better across the region, where many IDPs are confined in camps with limited access to basic necessities. Much progress is needed to ensure social and economic stability for the future.
Reducing Inequalities in the Legal System: Improving access to justice for the poor and disadvantaged is a goal the UNDP has been striving for for years. Women, children, and minorities are often left out of the democratic equation, leaving many voices unheard. Humans rights violations and inequality in the legal system are common in countries still emerging from conflict. South Asian countries in specific, such as Timor Leste, have rapidly changing legal frameworks and provide limited information and legal access to certain citizens. Combating these barriers to justice is necessary in developing a nation's identity.
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization Marginalization of Education: Although the foundations of education might be in place, many individuals still cannot take advantage of the resources available because of their background â€“ the respective solutions involve more than increasing the prevalence of educational institutions. Minorities in this region face obstacles in the journey towards attaining quality education â€“ from discrimination to a lack of resources in minority locales. Education reform and human resource development are crucial tools to achieve equality and social justice in Southeast Asia.
Combating Human Trafficking in Southeast Asia: Human trafficking, the illegal trade and migration of human beings for labor, criminal, and sexual exploitation is a paramount issue effecting both developed and developing countries. Often termed modern say slavery, this fast growing industry is all to common in the region of Southeast Asia, where over 200,000 women and children are annually trafficked. Trafficking is more than just a human rights issue, it is a social, economic, and criminal issue as well. Human trafficking needs needs to be tackled by a united front with the cooperation of local and national governments.
United Nations Environment Programme Environmental Impact of Tourism Tourism's relationship with the environment is complex. It involves many activities that can have adverse environmental effects. Many of these impacts are linked with the construction of general infrastructure such as roads and airports, and of tourism facilities, including resorts, hotels, restaurants, shops, golf courses and marinas. The negative impacts of tourism development can gradually destroy the environmental resources on which it depends.
Illegal Wildlife Trade Wildlife trade is any sale or exchange of wild animal and plant resources by people. This can involve live animals and plants or a diverse range of products needed or prized by humans—including skins, medicinal ingredients, tourist curios, timber, fish and other food products. Most wildlife trade is probably within national borders, but there is a large volume of wildlife in trade internationally. Southeast Asia is a major center for illegal wildlife trade. The region includes some of the world’s poorest countries, where the rich biodiversity is exploited by communities. Elsewhere, greater affluence in rapidly developing areas has led to increased demand and for wildlife products. As a result of high levels of wildlife consumerism, unsustainable rates of harvesting are threatening species that were once plentiful and bringing already endangered species closer to extinction.
United Nations Office of Project Services The United Nations Office of Project Services was created by the United Nations Development Program and became its own entity in 1995. UNOPS mission is to expand the capacity of the UN system and its partners to implement peace building, humanitarian and development operations that matter for people in need. Its goals include rebuilding peace in post-conflict areas, improving infrastructure, environmental sustainability, and empowering women. This committee is non-traditional, and the students will be writing “Project proposals” in relation to two of the topics already being discussed at PhilMUN in other committees: Medical Aid and Disaster Relief Response and Access to Education.
World Health Organization Medical Disaster Relief Each year the world experiences some sort of natural disaster. In 2008, Cyclone Nargis ravaged Myanmar; in 2005, Hurricane Katrina struck the United States; and in 2004, tsunamis tore through Southeast Asia leaving over 200,000 people dead. After each of these disasters, WHOs ability to effectively respond and provide relief is tested. Since natural disasters cannot be prevented, delegates will be asked to decide where WHO can improve to enhance its medical disaster relief capabilities to assist affected countries.
Treatment and Reduction of Malaria Over the past couple of decades cases of malaria have spread into a global issue, effecting tropical climates as well as many temperate regions. Of the eleven countries in Southeast Asia, ten of them have a widespread problem of malaria. As more strains of malaria have become resistant to any type of treatment, the need for a way to limit the spread has never been more vital. In debating this topic, delegates will be asked to evaluate the current methods and develop their own innovative solutions to resolve the current malaria endemic.
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